parole - a project of gruppo a12, udo noll & peter scupelli

marine city

  • author:
    Kiyonori Kikutake

    related links:
    http://www.arch.hdk-berlin.de/projekte/metabolismus/
    (metabolists: A fantastic german website on metabolism)

    related words:
    aquapolis (author)
    tower city (author)
    aquapolis (author)

    • echo:
      Kiyonori KIKUTAKE, ArchitectKiyonori KIKUTAKE (born in 1928) was first to propose a ' Marine City Project' in 1959, in the ' Architecture International'Magazine. In 1960, he contributed a work to the 'Visual Architecture' exhibition at New York Museum of Modern Arts. Eversince, has been presenting 'Floating system' projects.He tried his idea first on his own home (1958), with living space in center, he made kitchen/bath and other facilities movable,adaptable to changing needs of the dwellers. Notably, the children's room as encapsulated and the capsule was detachable sothat it would be removed when they grow up.In a similar process of schematic development, he envisioned a new cityscape as a composite organ of various networks whichcan grow in number and functions. He termed it a 'Channel Development' project (1965), which was employed for the grandTokyo new town development program. Meantime, the designs of 'super highrise' (1965) and 'strati form structure system'(1972-1995) were also conceived to be capable of disassembly and reassembly, and of incorporating the latest engineeringand industrial technology. These have been in process of being realized.Particularly the theme of 'Habitat' or the importance of living environment, has perpetually occupied his mind. He made anumber of prototypes (1958-1995), whereby presenting his ideal for collective housing in Japan. One of them 'Tiered Housing'was realized. Also "Tree shaped housing' caught broad attention.'Metabolism' sets an artificial environment amid and in coexistence with natural environment. Freedom of disassembly andreassembly serves this purpose. This is, in his opinion, is an extension of the traditional Japanese architecture.Honorary Fellow of American Institute of Architects Academician of International Academy of Architecture Professor at University of Waseda, Kohgakuin, Chiba Institute of technology Member correspondent de L'Academie D'ArchitectreWinner of UIA (Union Internationale des Architects), Auguste Perret Award (1978), AIA pan-Pacific Architecture Citation(1964), Award and the Minister of Education's Award of Art (1964)

    • bibliography:
      R. Banham "Megastructures, urban future of the recent past" London, 1976

  • quotation:
    Marine CityThe history of civilization of the world may be considered as so-called the eivilization of continents established, and prospered on the land. The continents have held man on the land in safety and have promised happiness and hope, and it seemed that as if the continents would meet man's expectation. However, when man was reduced to each individual and each individual had to struggle to each other to survive alone within the limited area, could man find own happiness and hope on the land as was expected? Unfortunately, the civilization of continents have accumlated bloody struggles of human relations established within the limited land, so, it was a history of endless internecine war of man. Eventually, the civilization of continents has brought up the present opposition of two big continents which is terrifing everyday's life of the people of this world. The civilization of continents have brought nothing but such a largest opposition after its 5000 years' history. This most miserable fact which forebodes the end of the world is nothing else but the destiny of the civilization of continents, and this destiny had been ordained at that time when man had occupied, then, clung to and expected too much from the land. Notwithstanding the land did not increase, the population increased much rapidly. The consequence will be more apparent if taking into the consideration on the mutual relation between population and agricuItural products in the world.Aaia is a typical continent of this question. The present poverty of Asian countries have its root in the unbalanced increase of population and agricuItural products and also in the inefficient primitive husbandry in these countries. Such fact will be regarded as a truth even if man devide the land by the boundaries, speak different languages, and use particular currency within an individual state. In past, the map of the world had been revised again and again, but man could never overwhelm the deep-rooted internal contradiction of which the continents embodied.In these areas where the people clings to such sinful land and keeps primitive industries, the living standard is in low level and the political and social situation is in unstable condition. Furthermore, the length of life is very short too. The writer wishes to point out the fact such situation is degrading day by day. Such situation is not influenced by local climate, natural feature and races. The industrial revolution was a most important opportunity for man to liquidate the continued causation between man and the continents. The revolution was a new halo of god that man could have a prospect disregarding the connection with the land. By the revolution, man had taken leave of the land and had been emancipated from the struggling life entangled in the past civilization of continents. And, the civilization of sea was introduced to man.Maine City is a proposal to build up the world of tomorrow for man. This proposal is going to confront with the sea which possesses over 70% area of the surface of the globe, have observed the progress of the civilization of continents since, and have refused man's invasion for 5000 years. In other words, as an assembled unit of human community, Marine City is going to challenge the sea to man's new world.The purpose of Marine City is neither intend to enlarge the land nor to escape from the land. Merely, to escape from the land, the plan of Marine City requests too much prudent studies and discussions, while, to enlarge the land, the plan demands too much excellent combination of synthetic engineering and powerful economy. The existing confusion of land cities should not be brought to Marine city. The sea will refuse such disorder and careless undertaking as she has refused before. The desecration of such fastidious virtue of the sea is the reclamation project of foreshore. It is a clear fact that the excellent condidition of human community can not be established on the reclamed ground, if considered the existing relations between man and the land. At present, the engineering would be of no use unless it would assemble and organize the human powers more orderly and synthetically. It could neither be endured nor allowed that the engineering to be utilized in auch huge plan might be driven away to the destructive confusion which was being called as "Construction".The continental shelf down to 200 m. depth of water should be offered to man's use, but man have to reserve enough space for fish and marine plant. The sea is waiting a new discovery of the sea which will promise a true happiness of human being. It is just the time that the civilization of continents must hand over its part to the prospective civilization of sea commenced by Marine City, as well as the coal era had handed over its part to the oil era. It must be studied that Marine city will be a unit of human community, not that of individual life. In case when Marine City became unsatisfactory unit for community, it will be brought to the middle of ocean and be sunken there without the least hesitation. Then, such sunken Marine City will be fish bed at the bottom of sea. Marine City does not be anchored at the definite point. It can cruise to anywhere man wants when necessary. The construction of Marine City will start from the floating manufacturing plants which will be the mother's body of Marine city. From this plant city, new units of Marine City will be delivered out one by one. Marine City will submit stereo-space for human community on the surface, while, it will offer fish bed to preserve and breed fishes by its under water part. As Marine city is the artificial city, it will have each particular function provided by the original scheme. These establishments will be presented to the new human community in the sea, and these will promise man the new world in the coming days.

  • definition:
    related links:
    http://parole.aporee.org/files/ga12/marine_city.jpg
    (marine city: )

    related words:
    aquapolis (definition)
    linear city (definition)
    floating city 1 (definition)
    cyborg city (definition)
    ocean city (definition)
    aquapolis (definition)
    • echo:
      A few dates pertaining to the colonization of the oceans and marine cities :697 - Election of the first Venitian Doge. 12th Century - First man-made islands in Japan. Amsterdam is a city of fishermen. 19th Century - Protection of the Bay of Tokyo. 1922 - Armstrong - Project for floating airport (400 m x 135 m). 1950 - Construction of man-made islands for underwater extraction of coal in Japan. 1958 - Kiyonori Kikutake - Marina City, first modern project for a marine city. 1960 - Paul Maymont - Project of Thalassa, extension of Monaco. 1960 - Kenzo Tange - Project for extension of the city of Tokyo. 1960 - Paolo Soleri - Project of Movandah, floating island, 2750 hectares, 400,000 inhabitants. 1968 - Richard Buckminster Fuller - Triton City Project : floating islands for 3,500 - 6,500 inhabitants. 1970 - Hal Moggridge - Sea City Project : 16 stories on pilings, 30,000 inhabitants. 1975 - Kiyonori Kikutake - Construction of the man-made island of Aquapolis in Hawaii. 1999 - Marine extension of the Seoul airport, South Korea. 2020 - Construction of the first modern marine cities on "soft" structures. 2030 Numerous projects are under construction in Europe and South East Asia. 2050- Expansion of aquaculture and food industries in oceanic milieu. 2090 - The population of marine cities include millions of individuals.

    • dictionary fragment:
      Main Entry: 1ma·rine Pronunciation: m&-'rEnFunction: adjectiveEtymology: Middle English, from Latin marinus, from mare sea; akin to Old English mere sea, pool, Old High German meri sea, Old Church Slavonic morjeDate: 15th century1 a : of or relating to the sea <marine life> b : of or relating to the navigation of the sea : NAUTICAL <a marine chart> c : of or relating to the commerce of the sea : MARITIME <marine law> d : depicting the sea, seashore, or ships <a marine painter>2 : of or relating to marines <marine barracks>

  • date (project or term):
    1958